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The reproductive caste of a mature colony includes a fertile female and male, known as the queen and king.61 The queen of the colony is responsible for egg production for its colony. Unlike in ants, the king mates with her for life.62 In some species, the abdomen of the queen swells up radically to increase fecundity, a characteristic known as physogastrism.61 Depending on the species, the queen starts producing reproductive winged alates at a certain period of year, and enormous swarms emerge from the colony when nuptial flight begins.

A young termite nymph. Nymphs first moult into workers, but others might farther moult to become soldiers alates.

Termites are often compared with the social Hymenoptera (ants and various species of bees and wasps), but their differing evolutionary origins result in significant differences in life cycle. In the eusocial Hymenoptera, the workers are entirely female. Men (drones) are haploid and develop from unfertilised eggs, while females (both workers and the queen) are diploid and grow from fertilised eggs.

Depending on species, both male and female employees may have different roles in a termite colony.63.



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The life cycle of a termite begins with an egg, but is different from that of a bee or ant in that it goes through a developmental process called incomplete metamorphosis, with egg, nymph and adult stages.64 Nymphs resemble small adults, and go through a series of moults as they develop.

The development of nymphs into adults can take months; the time period depends on food availability, temperature, and the general population of the colony. Since nymphs are unable to feed themselves, workers must feed them, but employees also take part in the social life of their colony and also have certain different activities to accomplish such as foraging, building or maintaining the nest or tending to the queen.5367 Pheromones govern the caste system in termite colonies, preventing all but a very few of the termites from becoming fertile queens.68.

Queens of the eusocial termite Reticulitermes speratus are capable of a long lifespan without sacrificing fecundity. These long-lived queens have a significantly lower degree of oxidative damage, including oxidative DNA damage, than employees, soldiers and nymphs.69 The lower levels of damage seem to be due to increased catalase, an enzyme that protects against oxidative stress.69.



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Termite alates only depart the colony when a nuptial flight occurs. Alate males and females pair up together and then land in search of a suitable place for a colony.70 A termite king and queen do not mate until they find such a spot. When they perform they excavate a chamber large enough for both, close up the entrance and proceed to mate.70 After mating, the set never go outdoors and spend the remainder of their lives in the nest.

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For instance, alates in certain species appear during the daytime in summer while others emerge during the winter.71 The nuptial flight might also begin at dusk, when the alates swarm around regions with plenty of lights. The time when nuptial flight begins depends on the environmental conditions, the time of day, humidity, wind speed and precipitation.71 The number of termites in a colony also fluctuates, with the larger species normally having 1001,000 individuals.

The queen only lays 1020 eggs in the very early phases of the colony, but places as many as 1,000 per day when the colony is several years old.53 At maturity, a primary queen has a great capacity to lay eggs. In some species, the mature queen includes a greatly distended abdomen and might create 40,000 eggs a day.72 The two adult ovaries may possess some 2,000 see this site ovarioles every.73 The abdomen increases the queen's body length to a number of times greater than before mating and reduces her ability to move freely; attendant employees offer assistance. .

The king develops only slightly larger after initial mating and continues to partner with the queen for life (a termite queen can survive between 30 to 50 years); this is quite different from ant colonies, in that a queen mates once with the male(s) and stores the gametes for life, as the male ants die shortly after mating.6267 When a queen is absent, a termite king produces pheromones which encourage the development of replacement termite queens.74 As the queen and king are monogamous, sperm competition does not occur.75.



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Termites going through incomplete metamorphosis on the road to becoming alates form a subcaste in certain species of termite, functioning as potential supplementary reproductives. These supplementary reproductives only mature into primary reproductives upon the death of a king or queen, or when the primary reproductives are separated from the colony.6676 Supplementaries have the capacity to replace a dead primary reproductivesystem, and there may also be more than just a single supplementary within a colony.53 Some queens have the ability to change from sexual reproduction to asexual reproduction.

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